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All listings for this product Buy it now Buy it now. Pre-owned Pre-owned. About this product Product Information Raman spectroscopy is an analytical technique used for solving problems in a wide variety of applications. This book provides detailed information and worked examples on how to carry out Raman experiments and interpret Raman spectra.

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Additional Product Features Author s. Show more Show less. No ratings or reviews yet. However, the laser wavelength and laser power have to be carefully selected for each type of sample to avoid its degradation. Applications of Raman imaging range from materials sciences to biological studies.

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For that reason, modern Raman microscopes are often equipped with several lasers offering different wavelengths, a set of objective lenses, and neutral density filters for tuning of the laser power reaching the sample. Selection of the laser wavelength mainly depends on optical properties of the sample and on the aim of the investigation. Due to typically low absorbances of biological samples in this spectral range, the risk of damaging the specimen as well as autofluorescence emission are reduced, and high penetration depths into tissues can be achieved.

Raman scattering, specifically tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, produces high resolution hyperspectral images of single molecules [53] atoms, [54] and DNA. Raman scattering is polarization sensitive and can provide detailed information on symmetry of Raman active modes. While conventional Raman spectroscopy identifies chemical composition, polarization effects on Raman spectra can reveal information on the orientation of molecules in single crystals and anisotropic materials, e.

Polarization—dependent Raman spectroscopy uses plane polarized laser excitation from a polarizer. The Raman scattered light collected is passed through a second polarizer called the analyzer before entering the detector. The analyzer is oriented either parallel or perpendicular to the polarization of the laser. Spectra acquired with the analyzer set at both perpendicular and parallel to the excitation plane can be used to calculate the depolarization ratio.

Typically a polarization scrambler is placed between the analyzer and detector also. It is convenient in polarized Raman spectroscopy to describe the propagation and polarization directions using Porto's notation, [56] described by and named after Brazilian physicist Sergio Pereira da Silva Porto. For isotropic solutions, the Raman scattering from each mode either retains the polarization of the laser or becomes partly or fully depolarized.

If the vibrational mode involved in the Raman scattering process is totally symmetric then the polarization of the Raman scattering will be the same as that of the incoming laser beam. In the case that the vibrational mode is not totally symmetric then the polarization will be lost scrambled partially or totally, which is referred to as depolarization. Hence polarized Raman spectroscopy can provide detailed information as to the symmetry labels of vibrational modes.

Modern Raman Spectroscopy: A Practical Approach - Ewen Smith, Geoffrey Dent - Google книги

In the solid state, polarized Raman spectroscopy can be useful in the study of oriented samples such as single crystals. The polarizability of a vibrational mode is not equal along and across the bond. Therefore the intensity of the Raman scattering will be different when the laser's polarization is along and orthogonal to a particular bond axis. This effect can provide information on the orientation of molecules with a single crystal or material. The spectral information arising from this analysis is often used to understand macro-molecular orientation in crystal lattices, liquid crystals or polymer samples.

The polarization technique is useful in understanding the connections between molecular symmetry , Raman activity, and peaks in the corresponding Raman spectra. Each mode is separated according to its symmetry. At least 25 variations of Raman spectroscopy have been developed.

Terms such as spontaneous Raman spectroscopy or normal Raman spectroscopy summarize Raman spectroscopy techniques based on Raman scattering by using normal far-field optics as described above. Variants of normal Raman spectroscopy exist with respect to excitation-detection geometries, combination with other techniques, use of special polarizing optics and specific choice of excitation wavelengths for resonance enhancement.

Modern Raman Spectroscopy: A Practical Approach, 2nd Edition

Enhancement of Raman scattering is achieved by local electric-field enhancement by optical near-field effects e. Raman signal enhancements are achieved through non-linear optical effects, typically realized by mixing two or more wavelengths emitted by spatially and temporally synchronized pulsed lasers. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Raman scattering.

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  • ISBN 13: 9780471496687.
  • This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. July Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Raman microscope. Practical Raman spectroscopy. Spectroscopy for the biological sciences. Die Naturwissenschaften.

    Bibcode : NW Handbuch der Radiologie in German. Leipzig: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft. Krishnan; Raman, C. The Raman Effect. Raman spectroscopy for chemical analysis.

    teolagihalsa.gq Annual Review of Physical Chemistry. Applied Spectroscopy. Retrieved Smith Gregory S. Huff Keith C. Journal of Chemical Physics. Bibcode : JChPh..

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    February 23, Scientia Sinica. Biochemical Journal. Biophys J. Bibcode : BpJ Biophysical Chemistry. Trends in Biochemical Sciences. Journal of Biophotonics. Analytical Chemistry. BBC News. Nature Protocols. Journal of Structural Biology. Edwards, John M. Archived from the original on Bibcode : ApSpe.. Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry. Photonics North Schaeberle; Scott W. Huffman; Ira W.

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    • Levin Havener; et al. December ACS Nano. Nature Photonics. Bibcode : NaPho Confocal Raman Microscopy. Springer Series in Surface Sciences. Everall Schmid; N.

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      Levcenko; T. Rissom; D.